This meant that two-thirds of the African Americans lived in groups of ten or more.
On February 23,the voters of Red River County narrowly approved the secession ordinance by a vote of to With the outbreak of the Civil Warcounty support for the Confederacy was nearly unanimous. From towhile the White population registered a dramatic increase, the Black population dropped to 8, By Blacks comprised just under 24 percent of the population.
Democratic presidential candidates carried the county in every election through with the exception of the and elections, when Republicans Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan, respectively, carried the area. Despite the gloomy predictions to the contrary, Blacks did prove willing and able to work, and the changes the Republican party was willing to fight for proved to be quite limited.
With most citizens involved in agriculture, the county had no large towns and few manufacturing establishments. In the s the area began to trend Republican. During the secession crisis, although some citizens such as Charles DeMorse Clarksville and ranchers dating, editor of the Northern Standard later the Clarksville Standardwere clearly reluctant, most of the county's leaders supported withdrawing from the Union. During the early s bands of Shawnee, Delaware, and Kickapoo Indians immigrated into what is now Red River County, settling along the banks of the creeks that still bear their names.
When the commissioners chose Clarksville insome residents of LaGrange tried unsuccessfully to reverse the ruling. During the s many farmers turned to the production of cotton, which became the principal cash crop of the county with a reported crop of 7, bales in Cattle remained important to the economy; farmers owned over 15, head in The early settlers of Red River County were for the most part southerners who brought with them their institutions such as slavery. An early of the area stated that French hunters gave Pecan Point its name.
With the successful conclusion of the Texas Revolutionthe United States relinquished its disputed claim to the area south of the Red River. From its founding the county grew in population slowly but steadily. In another railroad, the Paris and Mount Pleasant, was built through the southwestern corner of the county with Bogata and Johntown as shipping points; the road was abandoned in The years from to brought steady growth, as the county population increased to 29, in and to 35, in The Black population grew more slowly than the White population between and In the 4, Blacks comprised 39 percent of the population, while the 8, Blacks present in ed for 30 percent.
Land for sale under $,
In the election of White Republicans supported by Black votes won control of the county. Democrat Bill Clinton won only a plurality in the county inand won by only a small margin in ; Republican George W. Bush won solid majorities in and In the Texas and Pacific Railway was completed through the county, and for the first time residents had relatively quick and dependable transportation to larger market centers. By residents ed 8, As in many other parts of North Texas, problems with adequate transportation probably served to inhibit the county's growth. During the last decade of the eighteenth century, due to epidemics that decimated the tribe and problems with the Osages, the Caddos abandoned the villages they had occupied for centuries.
Following the decline of Jonesborough in the early s, Clarksville became the county's largest town. InClarksville and ranchers dating, 36 percent of the county's 8, residents were Black. When it became clear that the Radical Republicans in Congress were intent on extending a measure of social and political equality to Blacks, some Whites in the county attempted to block these efforts by using violence and intimidation. Adequate transportation may have led to the dramatic increase in population from 10, in to 17, in The coming of the railroad also meant the decline and eventual demise of communities such as Starkesville, Stephensboro, and Savannah, while the towns of Annona, Avery, Bagwell, and Detroit sprang up as railway shipping points.
Clarksville downtown farmers market
Although Anglo settlement of the county had already begun, relations between Indians and settlers were relatively peaceful. During the decades when small groups of French soldiers, hunters, trappers, and traders occupied the fort, they probably passed through Red River County on numerous occasions. Although the early settlers seem to have regarded the area as a part of the United States, when the United States government refused to issue them land titles, many of these settlers turned first to the Mexican government and then to Arthur G.
Wavell 's agent Benjamin Milam in an attempt to obtain valid land titles. Three companies of riflemen were equipped and dispatched to South Texas to participate in the war, but they arrived after the battle of San Jacinto. Red River County occupies 1, square miles of the East Texas Clarksville and ranchers dating. The population of the county was overwhelmingly rural. Freedmen were driven off plantations after the harvest without being paid for their work, young Blacks were often apprenticed to Whites against their will, and some Blacks in the county were murdered.
Support the Handbook today. After traveling for six months from Tennessee on his self-made keelboat, the PioneerClaiborne Wrighthis family, and his two married slaves, Jin and Hardy Wrightsettled near Pecan Point ining George and Alex Wetmore and William Mabbitt, who had settled in the area earlier that year. Of these, only a quarter held ten or more, and this small group owned two-thirds of the slaves in the county.
The county is drained by the Red River and the Sulphur River, which form its northern and southern boundaries.
The terrain is gently rolling with an elevation ranging from to feet above sea level. Mineral resources include oil, gas, clay, industrial sand, and chalk. During the last half of the war, as slaveholders from other areas of the South brought their slaves to Texas in an effort to keep them from fleeing or being confiscated by Union forces, the of slaves in the county rose to over 4, by The end of the Civil War brought changes in the county's economic foundation.
Finally, after Charles F. Rand, Freedmen's Bureau agent and winner of a Presidential Medal of Honor for bravery in action during the Civil War, fled from the county fearing for his life in Augusta detachment of federal troops under Maj. George Starkley was stationed in Clarksville. The Handbook of Texas is free-to-use thanks to the support of readers like you.
Like most other forms of wealth in antebellum Texasownership of slaves was unequally distributed among the county's White population. Most of the soils in the county are either loamy with a clayey subsoil or clayey. Archeological evidence indicates that portions of the county lands were occupied by Indians as early as the Late Archaic Period, around B.
At the time of first European contact, the area was occupied by the Caddo Indians, an agricultural people with a highly developed culture. This represented 49 percent of all taxable property in the county. Rainfall averages forty-six inches a year, and the growing season averages days annually. By the mids settlers had begun to move out onto the prairies, and by James Clark had settled at the site of present-day Clarksville.
New counties established in and reduced Red River County to its current size. Because it was never invaded, Red River County escaped the physical destruction that devastated other parts of the South. While the end of slavery meant freedom for Blacks, to White slaveholders it was a serious loss of capital. During the mids the Indians abandoned their settlements. One prominent exception was Albert H. Latimer, a Unionist and postbellum Republican. No thank you, I am not interested in ing.
Claiming that the area was part of the Louisiana Purchase, American hunters and traders were active in the area byand by permanent settlement was underway at Jonesborough and Burkham's Settlement. During the early years of Anglo settlement, cattle were the principal marketable commodity. Clarksville, the county seat and largest town, is sixty miles northwest of Texarkana. This economic loss coupled with the widespread belief that free Blacks would not work and the uncertain status of the South in the nation, led to a loss of confidence that caused property values to plummet in Many of the county's White citizens were discouraged and bitter.
In it had a reported population of only Each antebellum community in the county—Robbinsville, Savannah, and Halesboro are examples—comprised little more than a general store, a gin, and perhaps a mill, with a few scattered houses. Almost all of these 3, were enslaved people. In addition to concern for loved ones on the battlefield, citizens were forced to deal with disruptions to the local economy caused by the unstable Confederate currency and the lack of Clarksville and ranchers dating market for their cotton. Just as the French had disputed Spain's claim to the area near the Red River, so also did American settlers.
The county was returned to White conservative control in the election of Since that time, with the exception of a brief period during the s, when the People's party took control, Red River County was for many years solidly Democratic. By the early s small herds were being driven south to the Austin colony. Nonetheless, the war years were trying times.
Only about one-quarter of White families owned slaves. The act called for the first county courts to be held at LaGrange later Madras until a commission to be appointed by the county court could ascertain the proper location for a county seat. The census of manufactures listed just thirteen establishments employing only eighty-five people. Most of the population growth registered during this period came from the agricultural sector, as total acres under cultivation rose from 83, in toin Cotton dominated the local economy, with 17, bales reported in and 46, bales reported in For most residents, however, increases in population and cotton production did not necessarily mean increased prosperity.
At least six companies of troops were mustered for service in the Confederate Army. The Red River was generally navigable for a part of the year, but when the river was low, produce and supplies had to be hauled to and from Jefferson, miles to the southeast. In fact, each census reported a smaller percentage of farmers who owned all or part of the land they farmed. During the First Congress of the Republic of Texasthe Red River district was little more than a vaguely defined area encompassing all or part of the land of thirty-nine present counties.
Still, they continued to send representatives to the Arkansas legislature. Gradually, confidence in the future and property values in the county began to rise.